※ If the course is scheduled as a 4-hour program, it contains the presentation video 40 minutes and have 10 minutes Q&A and 10 minutes break time *4 times

  • C01 An Introduction to the Basic Principles in Occupational Hygiene OHTA PDC Instructor Mr. Steven Verpaele, MSc (Nickel Institute) Biography Steven Verpaele

    Mr Verpaele currently works as manager Industrial Hygiene at the Nickel Institute and had senior roles at Mensura and the University College of Ghent. He is founder and president of the Belgian Centre for Occupational Hygiene (BeCOH), board member of the Belgian Society for Occupational Hygiene (BSOH), extraordinary member of the Belgian High Council for Prevention and Protection at Work, member of the board of directors of OHTA and the Belgian representative in the EU OH platform. With a master’s degree in Environmental Chemistry and Industrial Hygiene, he has more than 10 years’ experience as an expert in different ISO and CEN workgroups, with primary focus on workplace atmospheres.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling 2days(16hr)
    • Course Description Aims

      The PDC aims to provide an introduction on the basic principles in occupational hygiene and will cover a brief overview on the hazard recognition, evaluation and control techniques applied on chemical, biological and physical agents in the workplace. It will strengthen the delegates in initiating solutions to OH issues at the workplace and stimulate their interest to explore the OH profession further.

      Learning outcomes
      On completing this awareness level PDC, the delegate will have basic notice of:

      • The value of occupational hygiene and the role of the occupational hygienist;
      • Overview of the hazards in the workplace;
      • Hazard recognition techniques;
      • Sources and potential routes of exposure;
      • Hazard evaluation, exposure assessment and measurement processes;
      • Methods of controlling exposure;
      • The management of occupational hygiene programmes.

      The delegate will be aware of the Occupational Hygiene principles and will be able to recognize when he needs help of a more experienced Occupational Hygienist.
    • Who Should Attend? Target audience
      Health and safety professionals, occupational health specialists [including physicians and nurses] and people wanting to enter the field of occupational hygiene.
      Specialists in subjects such as acoustics, ergonomics, human factors, occupational psychology, work organization, biosafety, acoustics, engineering, or analytical chemistry who want a broader appreciation of how their role interfaces with other professions over health issues in the workplace.
    • Instructional Methods Content:

      Topic Title Time allocation
      DAY 1
      1 General introduction on OH 30 min
      2 Chemical agents
      2.1 Introduction to chemical agents 30 min
      2.2 Standards and Occupational Exposure Limits 30 min
      2.3 Basic concepts of Toxicology 60 min
      Short break
      2.4 Risk Assessment 120 min
      2.5 Exposure Assessment 120 min
      2.6 Control Measures 120 min
      DAY 2
      3 Physical agents
      3.1 Introduction to physical agents 30 min
      3.2 Standards and Occupational Exposure Limits 30 min
      3.3 Noise 60 min
      Short break
      3.3 Thermal environment 60 min
      3.4 Lighting and non-ionizing radiation 60 min
      3.5 Ionizing radiation 60 min
      4 Biological agents
      4.1 Introduction to biological agents 30 min
      4.2 Standards and Occupational Exposure Limits 30 min
      4.3 Legionella 60 min
      4.4 Yeasts, molds and bacteria 60 min
  • C02 Fundamental Industrial Ventilation System Design Principles Instructor Mr. Gregg Grubb (Grubb Industrial Hygiene Services, LLC) Biography After 32 years of service, Gregg Grubb, CIH, retired from the State of Michigan in May of 2017, where he worked as an industrial hygienist for Michigan OSHA and the Michigan State Police. In January of 2017, Gregg formed and became Vice President of Grubb Industrial Hygiene Services, LLC, which provides industrial ventilation education and consulting services, combustible dust assistance, and comprehensive industrial hygiene services. Gregg also currently serves as:
    • Lecturer for the University of Michigan, School of Public Health, where he teaches the graduate level EHS 654 class, Control of Exposures to Airborne Contaminants; he taught this course in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Also teaching EHS653, Environmental Sampling and Analysis Laboratory in 2021.
    • Instructor since 2016 for the University of Michigan, Center for Occupational Health and Safety Engineering course, Comprehensive Industrial Hygiene Review, where he teaches the industrial ventilation review segment. This course is held twice annually.
    • Vice Chair since 2016 and member since 2006 of the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Committee. This committee is responsible for updating and editing two of ACGIH’s signature publications (Industrial Ventilation – A Manual of Recommended Practice for Design, and Industrial Ventilation – A Manual of Recommended Practice for Operations and Maintenance) on a regularly scheduled basis.
    • Instructor since 2017 for the ACGIH® course, Fundamentals of Industrial Ventilation & Practical Applications of Useful Equations. This course is held three times per year.
    • Executive Director of the Michigan Industrial Ventilation Conference, the longest running and largest venue in North America for industrial ventilation education. Gregg is the longest serving director of this conference, having led the conference for 16 years, and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of marketing, developing, and educational content. The conference provides three industrial ventilation system design classes, one class in managing and troubleshooting industrial ventilation systems, and two optional workshops addressing troubleshooting and combustible dust. He has also served as an instructor the conference for 29 years.
    • Planning committee member and instructor for the North Carolina Industrial Ventilation Conference for eleven years.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling 2days(16hr)
    • Course Description This predominantly presentation-based course will address the fundamental principles instrumental to successfully designing effective and economically efficient industrial ventilation systems. Topics to be addressed will include:

      • Understanding Airstream Properties and Airflow Principles
      • General Versus Local Exhaust Ventilation
      • Successful Local Exhaust Ventilation System Design Guidelines (addressing hood and duct system design principles)
      • Fan and Air Cleaning Device Principles
      • Industrial Ventilation System Stack Design
      • Replacement Air
      • Industrial Ventilation System Commissioning and Troubleshooting
      • Demonstrations of Ventilation System Measurements (e.g., static, velocity, and total pressure, face/slot velocity, and airflow rates)
    • Who Should Attend? This is an introductory level course addressing the topic of industrial ventilation. It is intended to teach fundamental design concepts, but not the actual procedure for the design industrial ventilation systems.
    • Instructional Methods This virtual (or remote learning) PDC will use a combination of PowerPoint-based lecture materials, as well as some corresponding lab-based demonstrations of industrial ventilation system testing and diagnostic concepts.
  • C03 Stoffenmanager®: a validated and regulatory accepted chemical exposure management tool combining latest exposure intelligence and smart IT Instructor Dr. Henri Heussen (Cosanta BV) Promotional Video Clip
    Biography Dr. ir. Henri Heussen completed his MSc in Biology in 1987 and worked until 1993 as a researcher at Wageningen University & Research in environmental toxicology. After completing his PhD he started working at Arbo Unie, an Occupational Health and Safety Service. He is a registered occupational hygienist and toxicologist with > 25 years’ experience. He is one of the developers of Stoffenmanager®, an internationally accepted Exposure Assessment and Control Banding tool ( Since June 2014 he is employed as CTO at Cosanta BV, the legal owner of Stoffenmanager®.

    Dr. rer. nat. Dorothea Koppisch was trained in biology, mathematics and biostatistics. Since 2000 she is working in the field of occupational safety and health for the German Social Accident Insurance. The emphasis of her work is conducting statistical evaluations of data from the IFA exposure database MEGA, including validations of exposure models with data from MEGA. She is also involved in the implementation and further development of the GESTIS-Stoffenmanager®, a German version of the Stoffenmanager® exposure estimation software tool.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling full day(8hr)
    • Course Description Due to the enormous amount of chemicals used in all kind of different exposure scenario’s, chemical exposure assessment by traditional methods like personal air sampling and / or biological monitoring will never be feasible for all workplaces. Validated exposure assessment tools which err on the side of caution can help filtering out safe from non-safe workplaces. In such a tiered business wise chemical management approach modelled non-safe workplaces warrant further investigation by traditional methods. During the course an overview of several exposure assessment tools used under REACH and Occupational Safety and Health (OHS) Regulations will be given. Including their validation, position in regulations and OHS practice.
      The background of the chemical management tool Stoffenmanager® will be explained in detail using case studies: 17 years development and business wise implementation, from exposure assessment tool to a complete chemical management tool, the underlying models and external validation studies by different research groups from the EU, US, Taiwan and Korea. Besides this theory participants will practice live at how to perform exposure assessments, interpret the outcomes, control the exposure by “playing” with the model parameters, and finally how to communicate the outcomes to workers, management and other stakeholders by generating work place instruction cards.
    • Who Should Attend? The course is aimed at professionals who are dealing with chemical exposure assessment and control and like to learn how models can be used in a tiered chemical management approach. Typically, this will include occupational hygienists and other occupational health and safety professionals. The course can also proof useful for HSE professionals, managers and regulators who start looking from the big picture and like to know some details of latest exposure assessment intelligence. Plus modern ways of communicating risks to all kind of stakeholders, starting with workers.
    • Instructional Methods The course will be a combination of theory and live exercises (case studies) at (WIFI is needed). Participants need to bring their own laptop. Training accounts will be provided. The course material will be provided beforehand electronically.
      Course outline:
      - Why modelling in OSH?
      - general introduction exposure estimation tools and background: ECETOC TRA, EMKG expo tool , Stoffenmanager®, ART
      - the models inside Stoffenmanager®
      Practical exercise: case study
      - entering basic information using SDS data
      - Inventory – practice entering components and products
      - Risk assessment – Stoffenmanager® control banding and quantitative assessment modules
      Practical exercise (photos and films)
      - Model parameters – learning to select relevant task categories
      Practical exercise: case studies
      - Risk assessments – performing exposure assessments and interpretation for risk assessment purpose
  • C04 Industrial Hygiene Principle – Advance Instructor Mr. Shrenik Ranpura (RECOH EHS Services LLP) Biography Shrenik is American Industrial Hygiene Association’s (AIHA) President Award-2015 recipient for promoting IH activities in India. He is Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), ABIH USA & Certified Safety professional (CSP), BCSP USA with 15+ years of EHS experience in multinational companies like 3M, GE, Kohler holding positions from site EHS manager, regional Industrial Hygienist to Global health & safety expert. He is currently working at LM wind power as global Health & Safety leader. He has conducted IH risk assessment on 1000+ processes and conducted IH monitoring at more than 30 manufacturing sites. He has conducted 20+ 3 days classroom training sessions on Industrial hygiene principles during tenure at GE & 3M.

    Disclosure: Shrenik is working at LM wind power (A GE renewable company) as global health & safety leader until February 10, 2020 and he will start own EHS consulting business in India after February 10, 2020
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling full day(8hr)
    • Course Description Industrial Hygiene is an essential element to make workplace healthy by anticipating, recognizing and quantifying IH risk and recommending right control to reduce exposure level. Well managed IH risk assessment, trained staff and right control can reduce personal exposure and companies’ legal liability.

      Course outlines practice and importance of industrial hygiene, recognize potential chemical, physical and biological hazards in workplace, industrial hygiene risk assessment method, essential elements to conduct personal IH monitoring (quantitative exposure assessment), implement & validate exposure control, identify common chemical, physical and biological agents in workplace and it’s health effects, understand different occupational exposure limits, select appropriate IH monitoring equipment, develop sampling plan, quality assurance during pre-sampling, sampling and post-sampling, IH result reporting and communication procedures, identify exposure control methods for chemical, physical and biological agents and validate effectiveness of control.
    • Who Should Attend? Industrial Hygienist, Environment health and safety team members, occupational physician, Operation and Engineering team who has responsibility oversee industrial hygiene activity and program at site.
    • Instructional Methods Power point presentation in classroom, Video, quiz, group exercise, quiz, practical demonstration for use of Industrial hygiene equipment.
  • C05 Aerosol Sampling Update Instructor Prof. Martin Harper (University of Florida) Biography Dr. Martin Harper has qualifications in Geology, Environmental Pollution Controls, Earth Sciences and the Environment and Advanced Analytical Chemistry and he obtained his PhD in occupational health research from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. Harper served 14 years as Chief of the Exposure Assessment Branch in the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 15 years as Director of Research for two air sampling instrument companies. He has faculty appointments in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences at University of Florida and the Department of Chemistry at University of the West Indies. He is a Chartered Chemist and Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a Certified Industrial Hygienist and Fellow of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. Dr. Harper has published more than 150 journal papers, book chapters, encyclopedia articles and standards. He has organized international conferences and presented in 27 different countries and territories. Description view
    • Course Scheduling full day(8hr)
    • Course Description The history of aerosol particle sampling shows how advances in the theory of aerodynamics and penetration to the respiratory tract, and advances in sampling technology, have gone hand-in-hand over the past 100+ years, and have resulted in 20-30 year cycles of change in both limit values and sampling and analytical procedures, which is continuing today. This Course will present the current and future evolution of sampling and analytical methods in context of recent laboratory and field investigations so industrial hygiene practitioners and regulators, and laboratory analysts, will be able to respond appropriately. The concepts of total and “inhalable” particle assessment will be discussed, with emphasis on sampling for gravimetric analysis and analysis of metal content. Thoracic sampling and its relationship to PM10 (and PM2.5) will be covered. A third section will focus on respirable conventions and sampling, with special emphasis on respirable crystalline silica under the new US OSHA Rule. The rising interest in semi-volatile aerosols will be included. Finally, there will be a discussion of biological aerosols , including surgical smokes and viruses. Participants will be encouraged to evaluate the impact of currently recommended procedures on their own programs and how data can be reconciled across changes in procedures.
    • Who Should Attend? Industrial hygienists (company and consultant); occupational health practitioners; regulators; academic researchers; laboratory analysts
    • Instructional Methods Instruction will be by PowerPoint presentation. The slide file will be available to participants.
  • C06 Local Exhaust Ventilation - Design criteria, Evaluation & Maintenance Instructor Mr. Shrenik Ranpura (RECOH EHS Services LLP) Biography Shrenik is American Industrial Hygiene Association’s (AIHA) President Award-2015 recipient for promoting IH activities in India. He is Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), ABIH USA & Certified Safety professional (CSP), BCSP USA with 15+ years of EHS experience in multinational companies like 3M, GE, Kohler holding positions from site EHS manager, regional Industrial Hygienist to Global health & safety expert. He is currently working at LM wind power (GE) as global Health & Safety leader. Shrenik has designed 10+ LEV system and trained 100+ EHS, operation and engineering professionals on LEV design, measurement & maintenance.

    Shrenik conducted this PDC at 2nd International IH conference organized by Central Industrial Hygiene Association (CIHA) in collaboration with American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) in February 2015 at Mumbai, India. On demand of participants, LEV PDC will be again offered at 7th International IH Conference organized by CIHA and AIHA at Delhi on 5th February 2020.

    Disclosure: Shrenik is working at LM wind power (A GE renewable company) as global health & safety leader until February 10, 2020 and he will start own EHS consulting business in India after February 10, 2020
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling full day(8hr)
    • Course Description Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is most effective way of engineering control to control exposure and capture harmful contaminant at source before it is inhaled by workers. Often LEV systems are not designed properly and evaluated at regular interval to ensure sustainable performance to capture contaminants. This one day PDC covers understanding of various types of ventilation (supply & exhaust), selection of appropriate type of LEV component such as hood, duct, air cleaner, fan & stack, Identifying LEV design criteria (static pressure, velocity pressure, air volume, flow rate and velocity), Calculate ventilation design parameter (Diameter of hood & duct, length of duct, fan and air cleaner selection), perform LEV measurement practical (Velocity & different types of pressure) on demo LEV system with use of LEV measurement equipment, Design single and multiple hood LEV system and identifying non-performing LEV system.

      Pre-requisite for this training – Each student need to bring scientific calculator to perform LEV design calculation.
    • Who Should Attend? Industrial Hygienist, Environment health and safety team members, Operation and Engineering team who has responsibility to review, recommend, evaluate, maintain and recommend local exhaust ventilation system (LEV) design
    • Instructional Methods Classroom Theory by presentation, Practical use of LEV measurement equipment on demo LEV system, group workout, LEV calculation by participants, Video showcase of LEV performance.
  • C07 Occupational hygiene and Emergency Response involving chemicals Instructor Mr. Rene Leblanc (IOHA / GHD Consultant) Biography Mr. Rene Leblanc works in the field of hazardous materials for over 30 years. He is a certified trainer of the US-EPA Hazwoper program and has been involved in various emergency response. M. Leblanc is also current IOHA President. Description view
    • Course Scheduling full day(8hr)
    • Course Description Emergency Response is a critical step especially when it involves chemicals. The role of the Occupational Hygienist is fundamental and essential from site mobilisation, hazard evaluation, selection of proper PPE, the action levels, the monitoring, decontamination, emergency intervention and many other aspects. In North America, Hazmat workers are required to obtain Hazwoper certification and an annual 8-hr refresher training. This one-day course will discuss about key components to be included in an Emergency Response and Site Safety & Health Emergency Response Plan.
    • Who Should Attend? All Occupational Hygienist, Safety Professionals, Plant Manager, Emergency Responders and eveyone who would like to increase their knowledge in Emergency response.
    • Instructional Methods The course will be provided in English using powerpoint and internet. The course will be focused on real exemples and practical experience for students to have real exemples on the application of learning material.
  • C08 Practical heat stress assessment utilizing basic tools and phone/tablet applications Instructor Dr. Ross Di Corleto (Monitor Consulting Services) Promotional Video Clip
    Biography Dr Ross Di Corleto has been involved in occupational health & safety and occupational hygiene for over 35 years with experience in industry, mining and refining in Australia and internationally.
    He has a PhD in occupational health and a Master of Science by research in heat stress and is currently an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Queensland and Griffith University.
    He is a certified occupational hygienist, a Fellow & Past President of the Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists and the current President-Elect. He is also a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Health and Safety.
    One of Ross’ areas of particular interest includes heat stress and the thermal environment, and he has authored a number of papers & reference documents in the area.
    Ross is currently the Principal Consultant and Director of Monitor Consulting Services based in Brisbane, Australia.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling 4hr
    • Course Description Commence with a brief basic familiarisation to heat stress, terms, monitoring instruments and key measurement parameters. This will be followed by an introduction to the first level or basic assessment tools such as checklists and mobile applications that can be used by participants for initial assessment and also as training resources for employees. The rational index PHS (ISO 7933) will be introduced and participants will work through heat stress scenarios utilising this index to assess physical and environmental parameters via a computer program or a phone/tablet application to identify the most appropriate controls.
    • Who Should Attend? Participants with a basic knowledge of heat stress who want to expand their range of assessment tools and technical skills by utilising level one and two assessment strategies. This will include the use of phone/tablet/computer applications of a rational heat stress index.
    • Instructional Methods The initial portion of the PDC will involve a lecture by PowerPoint presentation of basic heat stress theory and introduction to the assessment processes and tools. This will also involve open discussion and interaction and some preliminary group problem solving. The main portion of the session will involve demonstration of the use of the tools via scenarios and participants will then be presented with heat stress scenarios of varying complexity and environmental conditions to resolve in groups utilizing principles and tools learnt.
  • C09 Application of Engineering Economics Principles towards Assessing Economical Feasibility of OEHS Controls and Solutions Instructor Prof. Sergio Augusto Caporali Filho (University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus) Promotional Video Clip
    Biography Professor Caporali earned his BSc degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Lima – Peru, his ME degree in Management Systems Engineering from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, his MSc. degree in Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Safety and his Ph.D. degree in Industrial Engineering-Ergonomics from West Virginia University.
    Sergio is a Certified Industrial Hygienist (ABIH) since 2011 and a Certified Safety Professional (BSP) since 2005. He is a member of ACGIH´s Industrial Ventilation Committee and an instructor for the Michigan Industrial Ventilation Conference.
    Since 2006 Dr. Caporali holds a professor position at the Graduate Program in Industrial Hygiene in the Department of Environmental Health from the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus. In that capacity, Dr. Caporali is responsible for the coordination and offering of several Industrial Hygiene graduate courses, such as Industrial Ventilation, Noise Control, Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Hygiene Sampling, and Management Tools for Industrial Hygienists. Professor Caporali is also involved in applied research in the areas of hearing protection field performance and industrial ventilation design.
    Dr. Caporali has over 25 years’ experience working in industry, both in management roles and in the field of technical consulting in engineering and industrial hygiene.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling 2days(16hr)
    • Course Description Course Prerequisites: Participants must be comfortable with Basic Mathematics, Algebra, and be used to work with Computer Spreadsheets such as Microsoft Office Excel.
    • Who Should Attend?
    • Instructional Methods The instructional method will include lecture with Power-Point presentations on Engineering Economy concepts, hands-on exercises to solidify every reviewed concept, hands-on workshops to cover the applied methodology to evaluate different competing alternatives, and spreadsheet exercises in this topic.
  • C10 Industrial Laser risk management and safety at the workplace Instructor Prof. Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi (Applied Laser Technology Lab) Biography Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi has worked as an Assistant Professor, and with more than 10 years of experience in teaching and research in national and international universities, also material testing lab of a cement factory, and currently is a researcher in applied laser technology lab. Besides teaching, he took part in several research projects resulting in journal publications.
    Because of his background in physics, occupational safety and health, he was able to provide the various course for students at both levels of undergraduate and graduate and also tutoring workshops, recognition, and evaluation of radiation, health, and safety of radiation at the worksite, and measurement methods, evaluation of radiation hazards, control and preventive measures at relevant laboratories and tutoring workshops for professionals. He had published books and papers in measurement and dose estimation and safety especially in the application of industrial radiography consisting of the laser.
    Description view
    • Course Scheduling 4hr
    • Course Description Lasers are used in a wide variety of industrial manufacturing operations. All users are required to complete the Laser Safety Training module before working with any laser system. Laser processes such as laser cutting, drilling, and welding of metals and other materials present unique hazards to the eye and skin that must be controlled. This course was designed to provide vital safety training and program administration for safety professionals, engineers, laser operators, and technicians. And it was developed and taught as a guide for identifying laser hazards and implementing control measures for these hazards. It was also designed for different levels of experience involving industrial, educational, or research applications of lasers. New laser safety industries found this course to be sufficient to begin a laser safety program, covering all topics within the laser realm without being too heavy on one specific category. This helped them develop, implement and maintain laser safety programs more easily.
      Risk assessment includes hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Before starting work, the system should identify and provide a laser hazard and risk assessment of work processes, control measures, and ways to lower the risk of production processes. And finally, monitor and review risk control measures.
      The managing laser risks consist of two phases framework including procedural controls, considering a different level of responsibility, training, and experience of the person involved, their tasks and activities to carry out the work, their applicable equipment and materials, also work area environment, which may increase or decrease the risk or newly introduced hazards considering the risk assessment. However, risk assessment may need to be reviewed and adapted to fit specific circumstances whenever there is a significant change in the activity.
      This course meets training requirements outlined by the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1, OSHA, ACGIH, and enforcement decree of the occupational safety and health act, to provide a better understanding of laser hazards and risks
      • Fundamentals and terminology are necessary for understanding laser safety.
      • Laser beam and Non-beam issues.
      • A brief history of laser accidents and the ocular and skin hazards
      • Laser-generated airborne contaminants and hazards.
      • Using the recommended methods for identification and assessment of laser risks, material, and devices and analyzing them.
      • Evaluation they based on the laser safety standards,
      • Control measures, and monitoring, special control measures for accidental exposure of workers and also for fire and the explosion of materials.
      • Laser preventive measures and selecting appropriate personal protective equipment such as eyewear and fireproof clothing.
    • Who Should Attend? All professionals involved in industrial, educational, or research applications of lasers. This course is designed for occupational, environmental health and safety professionals, industrial hygienists, laser physicists, instrumentation engineers, safety engineers, insurance and risk managers, health physicists, biomedical and biophysical researchers, educators, entertainment lighting producers, and laser operators.
    • Instructional Methods The teaching methods are a combination of direct instruction, individual study, indirect instruction, experiential learning, and collaborative learning.
      The course starts with direct Instruction to introduce the resources for attendants in the class, step-by-step by lecturing, PowerPoint presentation, questioning. The activities in the class can be based on the use of smartboards, videos, and online meetings depend on the progress of the time.
      Then the students are discussing, share, explore questions, complete projects, panels, brainstorming, and interact with each other.
      Instructor designs activities and gives them, the risk assessment forms and fact sheets. They do it by themselves and they will also consult their works to the teacher and finally report their projects.